Factores de riesgo y de protección en la infancia para los que desisten de manera temprana, tardía y para los delincuentes persistentes

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46381/reic.v17i0.225

Palabras clave:

estudio longitudinal, factores de riesgo, factores de protección, delincuentes reincidentes, desistimiento

Resumen

El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar hasta qué punto los factores de riesgo y de protección de la niñez predicen la persistencia o el abandono en carreras delictivas, ya que se ha argumentado que los factores de la niñez no son predictivos. En el estudio de Cambridge sobre desarrollo delictivo, se realizó el seguimiento a 411 varones londinenses desde los 8 hasta los 56 años. El artículo investiga los factores de riesgo y protección presentes entre los 8 y los 10 años para 37 delincuentes reincidentes (cuyo primer delito habría sido cometido hasta los 20 años y el último delito a la edad de 40 años o más), 38 calificados como desistimiento tardío (primer delito cometido hasta los 20 años y último delito a los 21-39 años), 50 desistimientos tempranos (primer y último delito hasta los 20 años), 41 delincuentes de inicio tardío (primer delito a los 21 años o más) y 227 no delincuentes. 18 varones fueron excluidos del análisis porque no tenían riesgo de una condena registrada a partir de los 40 años (debido a la muerte o la emigración). Los resultados mostraron que varios factores infantiles predijeron la persistencia en comparación con el desistimiento. Los factores de riesgo individuales y escolares (por ejemplo, baja popularidad y bajo rendimiento escolar) fueron los factores predictores más importantes de si un delincuente hasta los 20 años persistió después de esta edad o desistió. Los factores de protección de la familia (por ejemplo, la buena crianza de los hijos y el alto interés de los padres en la educación) fueron los más importantes para proteger a los delincuentes de que se conviertan en delincuentes persistentes en el curso de la vida y alentar el abandono antes de los 40 años.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Barnett, A., Blumstein, A., & Farrington, D.P. (1989). A prospective test of a criminal career model. Criminology, 27, 373-388.

Basto-Pereira, M., Começanha, R., Ribeiro, S., & Maia, A. (2015). Long-term predictors of crime desistance in juvenile delinquents: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25, 332 – 342.

Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J.A., & Visher, C.A. (Eds.) (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals” (2 vols.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Blumstein, A., & Nakamura, K. (2009). Redemption in the presence of widespread criminal background checks. Criminology, 47, 327-360.

Bushway, S. D., Nieuwbeerta, P., & Blokland, A. (2011). The predictive value of criminal background checks: Do age and criminal history affect time to redemption? Criminology, 49, 27-60.

Bushway, S. D., & Paternoster, R. (2013). Desistance from crime: a review and ideas for moving forward. In C. L. Gibson & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Handbook of life-course criminology (pp. 213-231). New York: Springer.

Cohen, P. (1996). Childhood risks for young adult symptoms of personality disorder: Method and substance. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31, 121-148.

Cottle, C.C., Lee, R.J., & Heilbrun, K. (2001). The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28, 367 – 394.

Farrington, D. P. (1991). Childhood aggression and adult violence: Early precursors and later life outcomes. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 5-29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Farrington, D. P. (1992a). Criminal career research in the United Kingdom. British Journal of Criminology 32, 521-536.

Farrington, D. P. (1992b). Juvenile delinquency. In J. C. Coleman (Ed.), The school years (2nd ed., pp. 123-163). London: Routledge.

Farrington, D. P. (1993a). Childhood origins of teenage antisocial behaviour and adult social dysfunction. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 86, 13-17.

Farrington, D. P. (1993b). Understanding and preventing bullying. In M. Tonry (Ed.) Crime and justice (vol. 17, pp. 381-458). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Farrington, D. P. (1994). Childhood, adolescent and adult features of violent males. In L. R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives (pp. 215-240). New York: Plenum.

Farrington, D.P. (1995a). Crime and physical health: Illnesses, injuries, accidents and offending in the Cambridge Study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 5, 261-278.

Farrington, D.P. (1995b). The development of offending and antisocial behaviour from childhood: Key findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 929-964.

Farrington, D.P. (1996a). Later life outcomes of truants in the Cambridge Study. In I. Berg, & J. Nursten (Eds.), Unwillingly to school (4th ed., pp. 96-118). London: Gaskell.

Farrington, D.P. (1996b). Psychosocial influences on the development of antisocial personality. In G. Davies, S. Lloyd-Bostock, M. McMurran, & C. Wilson (Eds.), Psychology, law and criminal justice: International developments in research and practice. (pp. 424-444). Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.

Farrington, D. P. (1998). Predictors, causes, and correlates of youth violence. In M. Tonry & M. H. Moore (Eds.), Youth violence (pp. 421-475). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Farrington, D. P. (1999). Predicting persistent young offenders. In G. L. McDowell & J. S. Smith (Eds.) Juvenile delinquency in the United States and the United Kingdom (pp. 3-21). London: Macmillan.

Farrington, D. P. (2000a). Adolescent violence: Findings and implications from the Cambridge Study. In G. Boswell (Ed.), Violent children and adolescents: Asking the question why (pp. 19-35). London: Whurr.

Farrington, D. P. (2000b). Psychosocial predictors of adult antisocial personality and adult convictions. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18, 605-622.

Farrington, D. P. (2001). Predicting adult official and self-reported violence. In G-F. Pinard & L. Pagani (Eds.), Clinical assessment of dangerousness: Empirical contributions (pp. 66-88). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Farrington, D.P. (2002). Multiple risk factors for multiple problem violent boys. In R. R. Corrado, R. Roesch, S. D. Hart, & J. K. Gierowski, J.K. (Eds.), Multi-problem violent youth: A foundation for comparative research on needs, interventions and outcomes (pp. 23-34). Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Farrington, D. P. (2003). Key results from the first 40 years of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In T. P. Thornberry & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 137-183). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.

Farrington, D. P. (2005). The Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) theory. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (pp. 73-92). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Farrington, D. P. (2006a). Comparing football hooligans and violent offenders: Childhood, adolescent, teenage, and adult features. Monatsschrift fur Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform (Journal of Criminology and Penal Reform), 89, 193-205.

Farrington, D. P. (2006b). Family background and psychopathy. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 229-250). New York: Guilford.

Farrington, D. P. (2007a). Advancing knowledge about desistance. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 23, 125-134.

Farrington, D. P. (2007b). Origins of violent behavior over the life span. In D. J. Flannery, A. J. Vaszonyi, & I. D. Waldman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression (pp. 19-48). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Farrington, D. P. (2007c). Social origins of psychopathy. In A.R. Felthous & H. Sass (Eds.) International handbook on psychopathic disorders and the law, Vol. 1: Diagnosis and treatment (pp. 319-334). New York: Wiley.

Farrington, D. P. (2012a). Childhood risk factors for young adult offending: Onset and persistence. In F. Lösel, A. Bottoms, & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Young adultoffenders: Lost in transition? (pp. 48-64). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Farrington, D. P. (2012b). Predictors of violent young offenders. In B. C. Feld & D. M. Bishop (Eds.), The Oxford handbook on juvenile crime and juvenile justice (pp.146-171) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Farrington, D. P. (2015). Prospective longitudinal research on the development of offending. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 48, 314-335.

Farrington, D. P., & Baldry, A. C. (2010). Individual risk factors for school bullying. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 2, 4-16.

Farrington, D. P., Barnes, G., & Lambert, S. (1996). The concentration of offending in families. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 1, 47-63.

Farrington, D. P., & Bergstrom, H. (2018). Family background and psychopathy. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of Psychopathy (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press (pp. 354-379).

Farrington, D. P., & Bergstrom, H. (2019). Social origins of psychopathy. In A.R. Felthous & H. Sass (Eds.), International handbook on psychopathic disorders and the law, vol.1: Diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.) New York: Wiley, in press.

Farrington, D. P., Coid, J. W., Harnett, L., Jolliffe, D., Soteriou, N., Turner, R., & West, D. J. (2006). Criminal Careers up to age 50 and life success up to age 48: New findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. London: Home Office (Research Study No. 299).

Farrington, D. P., Coid, J. W., & West, D. J. (2009). The development of offending from age 8 to age 50: Recent results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Monatsschrift fur Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform (Journal of Criminology and Penal Reform), 92, 160-173.

Farrington, D. P., Gallagher, B., Morley, L., St Ledger, R.J. & West, D.J. (1986). Unemployment, school leaving and crime. British Journal of Criminology 26, 335-356.

Farrington, D.P., & Hawkins, J.D. (1991). Predicting participation, early onset, and later persistence in officially recorded offending. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 1, 1-33.

Farrington, D. P., Lambert, S., & West, D. J. (1998). Criminal careers of two generations of family members in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 7, 85-106.

Farrington, D. P. & Loeber, R. (2000). Some benefits of dichotomization in psychiatric and criminological research. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 10, 100-122.

Farrington, D. P., MacLeod, J. F., & Piquero, A. R. (2016). Mathematical models of criminal careers: Deriving and testing quantitative predictions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 53, 336-355.

Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., & Jennings, W. G. (2013). Offending from childhood to late middle age: Recent results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. New York: Springer.

Farrington, D. P. & Ttofi, M. M. (2011). Protective and promotive factors in the development of offending. In T. Bliesener, A. Beelman, & M. Stemmler (Eds.), Antisocial behavior and crime: Contributions of developmental and evaluation research to prevention and intervention (pp. 71-88). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe.

Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Coid, J. W. (2009). Development of adolescence-limited, late-onset and persistent offenders from age 8 to age 48. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 150-163.

Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., & Crago, R. V. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of convictions for different types of offenses. Victims and Offenders, 12, 1-20.

Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Crago, R.V. (2018). Intergenerational transmission of self-reported offending in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In V. I. Eichelsheim & S.G.A. Van de Weijer (Eds.), Intergenerational continuity of criminal and antisocial behaviour: An international overview of studies (pp. 115-136). Abingdon, UK: Routledge

Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Crago, R. V., & Coid, J. W. (2014). Prevalence, frequency, onset, desistance and criminal career duration in self-reports compared with official records. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 24, 241-253.

Farrington, D. P., Ttofi, M. M., Crago, R. V., & Coid, J. W. (2015). Intergenerational similarities in risk factors for offending. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course. Criminology, 1, 48-62.

Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M.M., & Piquero, A.R. (2016). Risk, promotive, and protective

factors in youth offending: Results from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Journal of Criminal Justice, 45, 63-70.

Farrington, D. P., & West, D. J. (1981). The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In S.A. Mednick & A.E. Baert (Eds.), Prospective longitudinal research: An empirical basis for the primary prevention of psychosocial disorders (pp. 137-145). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Farrington, D. P., & West, D.J. (1990). The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development: A long-term follow-up of 411 London males. In H.J. Kerner & G. Kaiser (Eds.), Kriminalitat: Personlichkeit, lebensgeschichte und verhalten (Criminality: Personality, behaviour and life history)(pp. 115-138). Berlin, Germany: Springer-V erlag.

Farrington, D.P., & West, D.J. (1993). Criminal, penal and life histories of chronic offenders: Risk and protective factors and early identification. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 3, 492-523.

Farrington, D. P., & West, D. J. (1995). Effects of marriage, separation and children on offending by adult males. In J. Hagan (Ed.), Current perspectives on aging and the life cycle. Vol. 4: Delinquency and disrepute in the life course (pp. 249-281). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34, 575-607.

Horney, J., Tolan, P., & Weisburd, D. (2012). Contextual influences. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), From juvenile delinquency to adult crime (pp. 86-117). New York: Oxford University Press.

Jennings, W. G., & Fox, B. H. (2019). Acceleration, deceleration, escalation, and de-escalation. In D.P. Farrington, L. Kazemian, & A.R. Piquero (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of developmental and life-course criminology (pp. 70-80). New York: Oxford University Press.

Jolliffe, D., Farrington, D.P., Piquero, A.R., Loeber, R., & Hill, K.G. (2017). Systematic review of early risk factors for life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited and late- onset offenders in prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 15-23.

Jolliffe, D. Farrington, D. P., Piquero, A. R., Macleod, J. F., & Van de Weijer, S. (2017). Prevalence of life-course persistent, adolescence-limited and late-onset offenders: A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 4-14.

Kazemian L., & Farrington, D. P. (2006). Exploring residual career length and residual number of offenses for two generations of repeat offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 89-113.

Kazemian, L., & Farrington, D. P. (2015). The developmental evidence base: Desistance. In D.A. Crighton & G.J. Towl (Eds.), Forensic psychology (2nd ed., pp. 183-199). Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Kazemian, L., & Farrington, D.P. (2018). Advancing knowledge about residual criminal careers: A follow-up to age 56 from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Journal of Criminal Justice, 57, 1-10.

Kazemian, L., Farrington, D. P., & LeBlanc, M. (2009). Can we make accurate long-term predictions of patterns of de-escalation in offending behavior? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 384-400.

Kazemian, L., LeBlanc, M., Farrington, D. P., & Pease, K. (2007). Patterns of residual criminal careers among a sample of adjudicated French-Canadian males. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 49, 307-340.

Kirk, D. S. (2012). Residential change as a turning point in the life course of crime: Desistance or temporary cessation? Criminology, 50, 329-357.

Kirk, D. S. (2019). The effects of neighborhood context and residential mobility on criminal persistence and desistance. In D.P. Farrington, L. Kazemian, & A.R. Piquero (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of developmental and life-course criminology (pp. 515-535). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kurlychek, M. C., Brame, R., & Bushway, S. D. (2006). Scarlet letters and recidivism: Does an old criminal record predict future offending? Criminology and Public Policy, 5, 483-504.

Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H. R. (2008). Violence and serious theft: Development and prediction from childhood to adulthood. New York: Routledge.

Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W., & Farrington, D.P. (1991). Initiation, escalation, and desistance in juvenile offending and their correlates. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 36-82.

McGee, T. R., & Moffitt. T. E. (2019). The developmental taxonomy. In D.P. Farrington, L. Kazemian, & A.R. Piquero (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of developmental and life-course criminology (pp. 149-158). New York: Oxford University Press.

Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674-701.

Moffitt, T. E. (2018). Male antisocial behaviour in adolescence and beyond. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(3), 177-186.

Nagin, D. S., & Land, K. C. (1993). Age, criminal careers, and population heterogeneity: Specification and estimation of a nonparametric, mixed Poisson model. Criminology, 31, 327-362.

Osborn, S. G. (1980). Moving home, leaving London and delinquent trends. British Journal of Criminology, 20, 54-61.

Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., & Blumstein, A. (2003). The criminal career paradigm. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice, vol. 30 (pp. 359-506). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., & Blumstein, A. (2007). Key issues in criminal career research: New analyses of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Piquero, A. R., Sullivan, C. J., & Farrington, D. P. (2010). Assessing differences between short-term, high-rate offenders and long term, low-rate offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 1309-1329.

Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology, 41, 301-339.

Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2005). A general age-graded theory of crime: Lessons learned and the future of life-course criminology. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (pp. 165-181). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Savolainen, J. (2009). Work, family and criminal desistance: Adult social bonds in a Nordic welfare state. British Journal of Criminology, 49, 285-304.

Savolainen, J., Aaltonen, M., and Skardhamar, T. (2019). Employment, crime, and the life course. In D.P. Farrington, L. Kazemian, & A.R. Piquero (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of developmental and life-course criminology (pp. 495-514). New York: Oxford University Press.

Shepherd, J. P., Farrington, D. P., & Potts, A. J. C. (2002). Relations between offending, injury and illness. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 95, 539-544.

Shepherd, J. P., Farrington, D. P., & Potts, A. J. C. (2004). Impact of antisocial lifestyle on health. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 26, 347-352.

Skardhamar, T. (2010). Distinguishing facts and artifacts in group-based modeling. Criminology, 48, 295-320.

Skardhamar, T., & Savolainen, J. (2014). Changes in criminal offending around the time of job entry: A study of employment and desistance. Criminology, 52, 263-291. Theobald, D. & Farrington, D. P. (2009). Effects of getting married on offending: Results from a prospective longitudinal survey of males. European Journal of Criminology, 6, 496-516.

Theobald, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2010). Should policy implications be drawn from research on the effects of getting married on offending? European Journal of Criminology, 7, 239-247.

Theobald, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2011). Why do the crime-reducing effects of marriage vary with age? British Journal of Criminology, 51, 136-158.

Theobald, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2012). Child and adolescent predictors of male intimate partner violence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 1242-1249. Theobald, D., & Farrington, D. P. (2013). The effects of marital breakdown on offending: Results from a prospective longitudinal survey of males. Psychology, Crime and Law, 19, 391-408.

Theobald, D., Farrington, D. P., & Piquero, A. R. (2015). Does the birth of a first child reduce the father’s offending? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 48, 3-23.

Theobald, D., Farrington, D.P. and Piquero, A.R. (2019). The impact of changes in family situations on persistence and desistance from crime. In D.P. Farrington, L. Kazemian, & A.R. Piquero (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of developmental and life- course criminology (pp. 475-494). New York: Oxford University Press.

Theobald, D., Farrington, D.P., Ttofi, M. M., & Crago, R. V. (2016). Risk factors for dating violence versus cohabiting violence: Results from the third generation of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 26, 229-239.

Walker, K., Bowen, E., & Brown, S. (2013). Psychological and criminological factors associated with desistance from violence: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 286 – 299.

West, D. J. (1969). Present conduct and future delinquency. London: Heinemann. West, D. J. (1982). Delinquency: Its roots, careers and prospects. London: Heinemann.

West, D. J. & Farrington, D. P. (1973). Who becomes delinquent? London: Heinemann. West, D. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1977). The delinquent way of life. London: Heinemann. Whitten, T., McGee, T.R., Homel, R., Farrington, D.P., & Ttofi, M.M. (2017). Disentangling operationalizations of persistent offending. Journal of Criminal Justice, 52, 22-33. Whitten, T., McGee, T.R., Homel, R., Farrington, D.P., & Ttofi, M.M. (2019).

Comparing the criminal careers and childhood risk factors of persistent, chronic,

and persistent-chronic offenders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, in press.

Wolfgang, M. E., Figlio, R. M., & Sellin, T. (1972). Delinquency in a birth cohort. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Zara, G., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Early predictors of late onset offenders. International Annals of Criminology, 45, 37-56.

Zara, G., & Farrington, D. P. (2009). Childhood and adolescent predictors of late onset criminal careers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 287-300.

Zara, G., & Farrington, D. P. (2010). A longitudinal analysis of early risk factors for adult onset offending: What predicts a delayed criminal career? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 20, 257-273.

Descargas

Publicado

2019-01-29

Cómo citar

Farrington, D. P. (2019). Factores de riesgo y de protección en la infancia para los que desisten de manera temprana, tardía y para los delincuentes persistentes . Revista Española De Investigación Criminológica, 17, 1–33. https://doi.org/10.46381/reic.v17i0.225

Número

Sección

Artículos