Dar voz a los niños migrantes durante la recepción y los procedimientos de asilo. Ilustraciones sobre la implementación del art. 12 CRC en Grecia y Bélgica




Palabras clave:

UNCRC, menores migrantes, detención migratoria, debate sobre la crimigración, procesos de asilo, derecho a ser oìdo, vigilancia migratoria, entrevista de asilo


Según el enfoque de los derechos de la infancia, los niños, niñas o adolescentes solicitantes de asilo tienen derecho a una protección especial. No obstante, la realidad muestra que tan pronto como entran en un país de manera irregular, son criminalizados, convirtiéndose así en parte del debate sobre la crimigración. Como resultado, se ven privados de sus derechos humanos básicos, incluido el derecho a ser oídos, consagrado en la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos del Niño. El presente artículo parte de una discusión sobre el hecho de que la infancia en movimiento requiere un papel central y activo en la investigación, especialmente en momentos en que se introducen nuevos conceptos teóricos en el ámbito de la justicia juvenil y la vigilancia migratoria. En segundo lugar, se profundiza, a través de los casos de Grecia y Bélgica sobre cómo se aplica el derecho del niño, niña o adolescente a participar y a ser escuchado durante los procedimientos de recepción y asilo. Se llama la atención sobre las peculiaridades existentes en los enfoques de investigación basados en derechos aplicados a los estudios sobre inmigración, y se aboga por el uso  de enfoques holísticos que tengan como objetivo superar el concepto simbólico de dar voz a los niños, niñas y adolescentes y así conseguir un cambio positivo con respecto a los procesos de asilo de la infancia migrante.

Agencias de apoyo
Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO) (G078419N)


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aas, K. F. (2011). ‘Crimmigrant’ bodies and bona fide travellers. Surveillance, citizenship and global governance. Theoretical Criminology, 15(3), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480610396643

Aliverti, A. (2012). Making people criminal: The role of the criminal law in immigration enforcement. Theoretical Criminology, 16(4), 417–434. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480612449779

Barker, J., & Smith, F. (2001). Power, positionality and practicality: Carrying out fieldwork with children. Ethics, Place & Environment, 4, 142–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/713665949

Bauwens, T., Kennis, P., & Bauwens, A. (2013). Paradigms. Waving the flag or Flagging the Wave? In K. Beyens, J. Christiaens, B. Claes, S. De Ridder, H. Tournel, & H. Turbex

(Eds.), The Pains of Doing Criminological Research (pp. 23–37). Brussels: VUBPress.

Beazley, H., Bessell, S., Ennew, J., & Waterson, R. (2010). The right to be properly researched: research with children in a messy, real world. Children’s Geographies, 7(4), 365–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733280903234428

Bhabha, J. (2001). Minors or Aliens? Inconsistent State Intervention and Separated Child Asylum-Seekers. European Journal of Migration and Law, 3(3–4), 283–314. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718160120959276

Bhabha, J. (2014). Child Migration & Human Rights in a Global Age. Princeton: Princeton

University Press.

Bosworth, M. (2014). Inside Immigration Detention. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Christensen, P. (2004). Children’s participation in ethnographic research: Issues of power and representation. Children and Society, 18(2), 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1002/chi.823

Clacherty, G., & Donald, D. (2007). Child participation in research: Reflections on ethical challenges in the southern African context. African Journal of AIDS Research, 6(2), 147– 156. https://doi.org/10.2989/16085900709490409

Clavering, E., & McLaughlin, J. (2010). Children’s participation in health research: from objects to agents? Child: Care, Health and Development, 36, 603–611. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01094.x

Derluyn, I. & Broekaert, E. (2008). Unaccompanied Refugee Children and Adolescents: The Glaring Contrast between a Legal and a Psychological Perspective. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 31(4), 319–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.06.006

European Union: Council of the European Union (2006). Commission Recommendation establishing a common ‘Practical Handbook for Border Guards (Schengen Handbook)’ to be used by Member States’ competent authorities when carrying out the border control of persons, 9 November, 15010/06.


European Union: Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2012). 26 October,2012/C 326/02. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3b70.html.

European Union: Council of the European Union (2013). Directive 2013/32/EU of the

European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection (recast), 29 June, OJ L. 180/60 -180/95. https://www.refworld.org/docid/51d29b224.html.

Galante, V. (2014). Greece's Not-So-Warm Welcome to Unaccompanied Minors: Reforming EU Law to Prevent the Illegal Treatment of Migrant Children in Greece. Brooklyn Journal of International Law 39(2), 745-791.

Gallagher, M. (2008). “Power is not an evil”: Rethinking power in participatory methods. Children’s Geographies, 6(2), 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733280801963045

Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different Voice. Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, C. (2004). Knowing and not knowing: reflections on manhood. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 2(2), 99–114. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppi.157

Gilligan, C. (2015). The Listening Guide method of psychological inquiry. Qualitative Psychology, 2(1), 69–77. https://doi.org/10.1037/qup0000023

Goodman, J. H. (2004). Coping with trauma and hardship among unaccompanied refugee youth from Sudan. Qualitative Health Research 14(9), 1177-1196. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732304265923

Greece: Act No. 3386/2005 Codification of Legislation on the Entry, Residence and Social Integration of Third Country Nationals on Greek Territory [Greece].

Greek Ombudsman Department of Children’s Rights (2003-2011) Parallel Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child - Findings and recommendations of the Independent Authority ‘the Greek Ombudsman’ on the implementation of Children's Rights in Greece.

Greek Ombudsman Department of Children’s Rights (2016) Intervention of the Greek Ombudsman regarding unaccompanied minor refugees and migrants. http://bit.ly/2jwBDwm.

Gündogdu, A. (2015). Rightlessness in an age of rights. Hannah Arendt and the contemporary struggles of migrants. Oxford: Oxford Univerisity Press

Hancilova, B., & Knauder, B. (2011). Unaccompanied Minor Asylum-seekers: Overview of Protection, Assistance and Promising Practices. Budapest.

Hart, R. (1997). Children’s Participation: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care. New York: Unicef/Earthscan Publications.

Hodgkin, R. & Newell, P. (2007). Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York, UNICEF. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_43110.html.

Holland, S., Renold, E., Ross, N. J., & Hillman, A. (2010). Power, agency and participatory agendas: A critical exploration of young people’s engagement in participative qualitative research. Childhood, 17(3), 360–375. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568210369310

Hood, S., Mayall, B., & Oliver, S. (1999). Critical issues in social research: Power and prejudice. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Hunleth, J. (2011). Beyond on or with: Questioning power dynamics and knowledge production in “child-oriented” research methodology. Childhood, 18(1), 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568210371234

James, A., Jenks, C., & Prout, A. (1998). Theorizing childhood. Cambridge: Polity Press. James, A, & Prout, A. (2015). Constructing and reconstructing childhood: contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood. New York: Routledge.

James, A. (2007). Giving Voice to Children’s Voices: Practices and Problems , Pitfalls and Potentials. American Anthropologist, 109(2), 261–272. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.2007.109.2.261

Kellett, M. (2012). Child-led research from inception to reception: methodological innovation and evolution issues. Communication Management Quarterly, 24(2012), 5–26. https://doi.org/10.5937/comman1224005K

Kellett, M., Forrest, R., & Ward, S. (2004). ‘Just Teach Us The Skills Please, We’ll Do The Rest’: Empowering Ten-Year-Olds as Active Researchers. Children and Society, 18(February), 329–343. https://doi.org/10.1002/chi.807

Kohli, R. K. S. (2006). The sound of silence: Listening to what unaccompanied asylum-

seeking children say and do not say. British Journal of Social Work, 36(5), 707–721. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch305

Krappmann, L. (2010). The weight of the child’s view (Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child). International Journal of Children’s Rights 18(4), 501–513. https://doi.org/10.1163/157181810X528021

Landsdown, G. (1994). Children’s Rights. In B. Mayall (Ed.), Children’s Childhoods: Observed and Experienced (pp. 33–44). London: Falmer Press.

Lidén, G. & Nyhlén, J. (2016). Structure and Agency in Swedish Municipalities’ Reception of Unaccompanied Minors. Journal of Refugee Studies 29(1), 39-59. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fev015

Lundy, L. (2007). ‘Voice’ is not enough: conceptualising Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. British Educational Research Journal, 33(6), 927–942. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920701657033

Lundy, L., & McEvoy, L. (2012). Children’s rights and research processes: Assisting children to (in)formed views. Childhood, 19(1), 129–144. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568211409078

Lundy, L., McEvoy, L., & Byrne, B. (2011). Working With Young Children as Co-Researchers: An Approach Informed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Early Education & Development, 22(5), 714–736. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2011.596463

Maryns, K. (2014). The Asylum Speaker. Language in the Belgian Asylum Procedure. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

McCafferty, P. (2017). Implementing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in Child Protection Decision-Making: A Critical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities for Social Work. Child Care in Practice 23(4), 327–341. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2016.1264368

Morrow, V., & Richards, M. (1996). The ethics of social research with children: An overview. Children and Society, 10(2), 90–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1996.tb00461.x

Munford, R., & Sanders, J. (2004). Recruiting diverse groups of young people to research. Agency and empowerment in the Consent Process. Qualitaitive Social Work, 3(4), 469– 482. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325004048026

Oh, S. A. (2012). Photofriend: Creating visual ethnography with refugee children. Area, 44(3), 282–288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2012.01111.x

Pakes, F. (2013). Globalisation and the challenge to criminology. Globalisation and the Challenge to Criminology. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203436851

Papadopoulos, I. & Pycroft, A. (2019). Detention as protective custody for Unaccompanied Migrant Minors: A social and legal policy overview of the Greek framework on conditions of detention, under the scope of the UNCRC. In E.M. Guzik-Makaruk & E.W. Pływaczewski (eds.), Current Problems of the Penal Law and Criminology (p. 581-595). C. H. Beck, Warsaw.

Papadopoulos, I. (2019) How protective is custody for unaccompanied minors in Greece? Protecting children’s rights within detention. In Klaassen, M., Rap, S., Rodrigues, P. and Liefaard, T. (eds.), Safeguarding Children’s Rights in Immigration Law (p. 179-194). Cambridge: Intersentia.

Parkes, A. (2013). Children and International Human Rights Law: The Right of the Child to be Heard. London: Routledge.

Pisani, M. (2018). Illegal young bodies and the failings of liberal democracy. Some reflections on the European Union’s “refugee crisis” and its implications for juvenile justice. In B. Goldson (Ed.), Juvenile Justice in Europe. Past, Present and Future (p. 284). London: Routledge.

Powell, M. A., Fitzgerald, R. M., Taylor, N., & Graham, A. (2012). International literature review: ethical issues in undertaking research with children and young people. Childwatch International Research Network, 25.

Powell, M. A., & Smith, A. B. (2006). Ethical guidelines for research with children: A review of current research ethics documentation in New Zealand. Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 1(2), 125–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/1177083X.2006.9522415

Rap, S. (2019). The Right to Effective Participation of Refugee and Migrant Children: A Critical Children’s Rights Perspective, Working Paper Series W-2019/3. United Nations University, Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies. Available at: http://cris.unu.edu/sites/cris.unu.edu/files/W-2019-3.pdf

Spyrou, S. (2011). The limits of children’s voices: From authenticity to critical, reflexive representation. Childhood, 18(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568210387834

Stumpf, J. (2006). The Crimmigration Crisis : Immigrants , Crime , and Sovereign Power. American University Law Review, 56(2), 367–419. Available at: http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/aulr.

Thomas, N., & O’Kane, C. (1998). The ethics of participatory research with children. Children and Society, 12(5), 336–348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1998.tb00090.x

Thommessen, S., Laghi, F., Cerrone, C., Baiocco, R. & Todd, B. K. (2013). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms among unaccompanied refugee and Italian adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review 35(1), 7-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.10.007

Thommessen, S., Corcoran, P. & Todd, B. K. (2015). Experiences of arriving to Sweden as an unaccompanied asylum-seeking minor from Afghanistan: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Psychology of Violence 5(4): 374-383. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038842

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2005) General Comment No. 6: Treatment of Unaccompanied and Separated Children Outside their Country of Origin, 1 September, CRC/GC/2005/6. http://www.refworld.org/docid/42dd174b4.html.

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2009) General Comment No. 12: The right of the child to be heard, 20 July, CRC/C/GC/12. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ae562c52.html.

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (2012) Committee on the Rights of the Child, Report of the 2012 Day of General Discussion on the Rights of All Children in the Context of International Migration, 28 September. https://www.refworld.org/docid/51efb6fa4.html.

UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (2017) Joint General Comment No. 4 (2017) of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and No. 23 (2017) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on State obligations regarding the human rights of children in the context of international migration in countries of origin, transit, destination and return, 16 November, CMW/C/GC/4-CRC/C/GC/23. https://www.refworld.org/docid/5a12942a2b.html.

UN General Assembly (1951) Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. United Nations, Treaty Series, 189: 137. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3be01b964.html.

UN General Assembly (1967), Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. United Nations, Treaty Series, 606: 267. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3ae4.html.

UN General Assembly (1989), Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations, Treaty Series, 1577: 3. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38f0.html.

UN General Assembly (1996) Impact of armed conflict on children. Note by the Secretary- General, A/51/306. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f2d30.html.

UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2013) Global Trends. http://www.unhcr.org/statistics/country/51bacb0f9/unhcr-global-trends-2012.html.

UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2014), The Heart of the Matter - Assessing Credibility when Children Apply for Asylum in the European Union. https://www.refworld.org/docid/55014f434.html.

UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2019), Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, HCR/1P/4/ENG/REV, 4. https://www.refworld.org/docid/5cb474b27.html.

UN Human Rights Council, Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention (2015) United Nations Basic Principles and Guidelines on Remedies and Procedures on the Right of Anyone Deprived of Their Liberty to Bring Proceedings Before a Court, A/HRC/30/37. https://www.refworld.org/docid/55d2f44a4.html.

Vernimmen, J. & Reyntjens, L. (2018). De erkenning en toetsing van kindspecifieke vervolgingsgronden in de asielprocedure van niet-begeleide minderjarige vreemdelingen. In Rechten van niet-begeleide minderjarige vreemdelingen in België (pp. 199–219). die Keure.

Vervliet, M., Rousseau, C., Broekaert, E. & Derluyn, I. (2015). Multilayered Ethics in Research Involving Unaccompanied Refugee Minors. Journal of Refugee Studies, Oxford University Press 28(4): 468-485. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/feu039

Van der Woude, M. A. H., Van der Leun, J. P. & Nijland, J. A. (2014). Crimmigration in the Netherlands. Law and Social Inquiry 39(3): 560-579. https://doi.org/10.1111/lsi.12078




Cómo citar

Papadopoulos, I., & Van Buggenhout, M. (2020). Dar voz a los niños migrantes durante la recepción y los procedimientos de asilo. Ilustraciones sobre la implementación del art. 12 CRC en Grecia y Bélgica. Revista Española De Investigación Criminológica, 18(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.46381/reic.v18i2.347